Nouns identify the subjects we are referring to such as: names of places, persons, things, or ideas. The subject(s) can be expressed through the use of common nouns, proper nouns, or pronouns.
1) Noun – represents the name of a place, a person, a thing, or an idea.
a) Common Noun – refers to any place, person, thing, idea, etc.
car girl city religion mood
b) Proper Noun – refers to a particular place, person, thing, idea, etc.
sedan Jane Spokane Christianity depression
2) Pronoun - can take the place of a noun.
· What caused the damage?
· As the whale was released back into the ocean, it immediately joined its pod.
· Sally washed her car and let it dry before she drove it home.
3) Case Personal Pronouns – refers to the form that a pronoun takes in its relationship to the other words in the sentence. There are three types of cases:
· he · she · they · we · I · it
· (He) (she) (they) (we) (I) (you) will support this fundraiser.
· (He) (she) (they) (we) (I) (you) agreed to organize (it).
** Note: When referring to the first person, the word “ I ” is always capitalized, even in mid sentence.
· his · hers · its · their/theirs · our/ours · my/mine · your/yours
· That house is (hers) (his) (theirs) (ours) (mine) (yours).
· It is (her) (his) (their) (our) (my) (your) house.
· him · her · them · us · me
· Tom asked (him) (her) (them) (us) (me) to arrive early.
4) Compound Personal Pronoun- is used for action when turned back on the subject (reflexive use) and for emphasis (intensive use).
· himself · herself · themselves · ourselves
· myself · yourself · yourselves · itself
a) Reflexive use
· She talked herself into going to the concert.
· You could injure yourselves if you don’t hold on tightly.
b) Intensive use
· The manager himself made those long distant calls
· She herself will pay for all those expenses.
5) Relative Pronoun – Modifies a noun or pronoun occurring in the sentence and connects it to the rest of the sentence.
· that · which · what · who
plus derivatives: · whose · whosoever · whom · whomever
· The position that she wanted has been offered to someone else.
· A container, which held toxic chemicals, exploded in the warehouse today.
· They hired John Adams, who has had twenty years sales experience.
· What he would have preferred, is the corner office space.
· We are offering computer training for whoever needs it.
6) Interrogative Pronoun – is used in asking a question.
· which · what · who
plus derivatives: · whose · whom · whomever
· Who was at the meeting?
· With whom was that report left?
· Which customer made this payment?
· What did that customer buy?
7) Infinitive Pronoun – frequently refers to number and gender.
· any · either · neither · all · both · each
· some · several · everyone · one · someone · none
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